Friday, January 30, 2015

British Surrender Ultimatum, Amoy (8/26/1841)

Updated July 5, 2016

This was the first communication Henry Pottinger had accorded to any Ch'ing official since his arrival in China. He did, however, send George A. Malcolm, Secretary of Legation, to Canton to inform the Prefect his appointment as plenipotentiary as well as his presence in China. The request of the prefect for a meeting was summarily denied by Malcolm citing his rank was not sufficiently high to admit of such interview.

On Board HMS Wellesley, off Amoy,
August 26, 1841.

To His Excellency the Admiral, Commander-in-Chief of the Naval Forces of the Province of Fukien[1]:

"The undersigned, Sir Henry Pottinger, Bart, her Britannic majesty's plenipotentiary, Sir William Parker, commanding in chief the naval forces, and Sir Hugh Gough, commanding in chief the land forces of the British nation in these parts.

There being certain differences subsisting between the two nations of Great Britain and China, which have not been cleared up, the undersigned plenipotentiary, and the commanders-in-chief have received the instructions of their sovereign, that unless these be completely removed, and secure arrangement made, by accession to the demands last year presented at Tientsin, they shall regard it as their duty to resort to hostile measures for the enforcement of those demands. But the undersigned plenipotentiary and commanders-in-chief moved by compassionate feelings, are averse to causing the death of so many officers and soldiers as must perish, and urgently request the admiral commanding in chief in this province forthwith to deliver the town and all the fortifications of Amoy into the hands of the British forces, to be held for the present by them. Upon his doing so, all the officers and troops therein will be allowed to retire with their personal arms and baggage, and the people shall receive no hurt : and whenever these difficulties shall be settled, and the demands of Great Britain fully granted, the whole shall be restored to the hands of the Chinese."

Henry Pottinger,
Her Majesty's Plenipotentiary.

William Parker,
Rear Admiral.

Hugh Gough,
Major General.

Source: Bingham, John Elliot, Narrative of the expedition to China, from the commencement of the war, Volume 2, 1843, p.234. 韓栽茂,《廈門海防百年》,廈門大學出版社。
[1] Admiral Tow Chinpew (Dou Zhenbiao) 竇振彪, C-in-C of Ch'ing naval forces in Fukien 福建水師提督, at the time of the British attack, was away raiding pirates. The defense of Amoy were taken up, in his stead, by Commandant of Quemoy 金門鎮總兵, Keang Keyun (Jiang Jiyun) 江繼芸, and Xundao of Amoy 廈門巡道 [probably the equivalent of deputy magistrate], Liu Yaochun 劉耀椿. Keang's immediate transfer to Amoy was ordered by Yen Po-t'ao (Yan Botao) 顏伯燾, Viceroy of Fukien and Chekiang 閩浙總督. Keang, badly wounded, took his own life jumping off the cliff when cornered by British troops at dust on the first (and the last) day of engagement of the Battle of Amoy. The book "Narrative of the expedition to China, from the commencement of the war, Volume 2" gave this brief account of Keang.
"The Tsungping, Keang Keyun, whose proper station was Quemoy, but who, in consequence of the absence of Tow Chinpew, the naval Chinese commander-in-chief, had come from his own post to take the command, finding the day go against him, walked through one of the embrasures and drowned himself."

Thursday, January 29, 2015

Letters Patent (The Hong Kong Charter) 1843

Updated January 30, 2015

Victoria, by the GRACE of God, of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Queen, Defender of the Faith, — GREETING KNOW YE — that We, of our Special Grace, certain knowledge, and mere motion, have thought fit to erect and do hereby erect our Island of Hong Kong and its Dependencies, situate between twenty-two degrees nine minutes, and twenty-two degrees twenty-one minutes North Latitude, and the one hundred and fourteenth degree eighteen minutes East Longtitude from the Meridian of Greenwich, into a Colony, and the said Island and its Dependencies is hereby erected into a separate Colony accordingly, to be known and designated at 'the Colony of Hong Kong'.

AND WE DO hereby further grant, appoint, and ordain, that the Governor, for the time being, of the said Colony, and such other Persons as are hereinafter designated, shall constitute, and be a Legislative Council for the said Colony: And We do hereby direct and appoint, that in addition to the said Governor, the said Legislative Council shall be composed of such Public Officers within the said Colony, or of such other Persons within the same, as shall from time to time be named or designated for that purpose, by Us, by any Instruction of Instructions, or Warrant, or Warrants, to be by Us for that purpose issued under Our Signet and Sign Manual, and with the advice of Our Privy Councillor, shall hold their places in the said Council, at our pleasure: And we do hereby grant and ordain, that the Governor for the time being, of the said Colony, with the advice of the said Legislative Council, shall have full power and authority to make and enact all such laws and Ordinances as may from time to time be required for the Peace, Order, and good Government of the said Colony of Hong-Kong: And that, in making all such laws and Ordinances, the said Governor shall exercise all such powers and authorities; and that the said Legislative Council shall conform to, and observe all such rules and regulations as We, with the advice of Our Privy Council, shall from time to time, make for his and their guidance therein: Provided, nevertheless, and We do hereby reserve to Ourselves, our Heirs and Successors, our and their right and authority to disallow any such Ordinances in the whole or in part, and to make and establish from time to time, with the advice and consent of Parliament, or with the advice of our or their Privy Council, all such Laws as may to Us, to them, appear necessary, for the Order, Peace, and good Government of our said Island and its Dependencies, as full as if these Presents had not been made: And, whereas, it is expedient, that an Executive Council should be appointed to advise and assist the Governor of our said Colony of Hong-Kong, for the time being, in the administration of the Government thereof — We do therefore, by these, our Letters Patent, authorizing the Governor of said Colony, for the time being, to summon as an Executive Council, such Persons as may from time to time be named or designated by Us, in any Instructions under Our Signet and Sign Manual, addressed to him in that behalf: And We, do hereby authorize and empower the Governor of Our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, to keep and use the Public Seal appointed for the Sealing of all things whatsoever that shall pass the Seal of our said Colony: And we do hereby give and grant to the Governor of our said Colony of Hong-Kong, for the time being, full power and authority in our name and on our behalf, but subject, nevertheless, to such provisions as may be, in that respect contained in any instructions which may from time to time be addressed to him by Us, for that purpose, to make and execute in our name, and on our behalf, under the Public Seal of our said Colony, Grants of Land to us belonging within the same, to Private Persons for their own use and benefit, or to any Persons, Bodies Politic or Corporate, in trust for the Public uses of our Subjects there resident, or of any of them: And We do hereby authorize and empower the Governor of our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, to constitute and appoint Judges, and in cases requisite, Commissioners of Oyer and Terminer, Justices of the Peace, and other necessary Officers and Ministers in our said Colony, for the due and impartial administration of justice, and for putting the Laws into execution, and to administer, or cause to be administered unto them, such Oath, or Oaths as are usually given for the due execution and performance of officers and places, and for the clearing of truth in judicial matters: And we do hereby give and grant unto the Governor of our said Colony of Hong-Kong, for the time being, full power and authority, as he shall see occasion, in our name, and on our behalf, to remit any fines, penalties, or forfeitures which may accrue, or become payable to us, provided the same do not exceed Fifty Pounds Sterling, in any one case, and to respite and suspend the payment of any such Fine, Penalty or Forfeiture, exceeding the said sum of Fifty Pounds, until our pleasure thereon shall be made known and signified to such Governor: And we do hereby give and grant unto the Governor of our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, full power and authority, as he shall see occasion, in our name, and on our behalf, to grant to any offender convicted of any crime, in any Court, or before any Judge, Justice or Magistrate within our said Colony, a free and unconditional pardon, or a pardon subject to such conditions, as by any Law or Ordinance hereafter to be in force in our said Colony, may be there unto annexed, or any respite of the execution of the sentence of any such offender, for such period as to such Governor may seem fit: And we do hereby give and grant unto the Governor of our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, full power and authority, upon sufficient cause to him appearing, to suspend from the exercise of his Office, within our said Colony, any person exercising any office or Warrant granted, or which may be granted by us, or in our name, or under our authority which suspension shall continue and have effect, only until our pleasure therein shall be made known and signified to such Governor: And we do hereby strictly require and enjoin the Governor of our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, in proceeding to any such suspension, to observe the directions in that behalf, given to him by our instructions, under our Signet and Sign Manual, accompanying his Commission of appointment as Governor of the said Colony: And, in the event of the death or absence out of our said Colony of Hong-Kong, of such person as may be commissioned and appointed by us, to be the Governor thereof We do hereby provide and declare our pleasure to be, that all, and every, the powers and authorities herein granted to the Governor of our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, shall be, and the same are, hereby vested in such person as may be appointed by us, by Warrant, under our Signet and Sign Manual, to be the Lieutenant-Governor of our said Colony; or, in the event of there being no Person upon the place, Commissioned and appointed by use to be Lieutenant-Governor thereof, then our pleasure is, and we do hereby provide and declare, that in any such contingency, all the powers and authorities herein granted to the Governor, or Lieutenant-Governor of our said Colony shall be, and the same are hereby granted, to the Colonial Secretary of our said Colony of Hong Kong, for the time being, and such Lieutenant-Governor, or such Colonial Secretary, as the case may be, shall execute all, and every, the powers and authorities herein granted, until our further pleasure shall be signified therein: And we do hereby require and command all our Officers and Ministers, Civil and Military, and all other, the Inhabitants of our said Colony of Hong-Kong, to be obedient in aiding and assisting to such person as may be Commissioned and appointed by us to be Governor of Hong-Kong, or, in the event of his death or absence, to such person as may, under the provision of these, our Letters Patent, assume and exercise the functions of such: And we do hereby reserve to us, our heirs and successors, full power and authority from time to time, to revoke, alter, or amend, these our Letters Patent, as to us or them shall seem meet:: IN WITNESS WHEREOF, we have caused these, our Letters, to be made Patent.

WITNESS Ourself, at Westminster, the fifth day of April, in the sixth year of our Reign.


Source: Legislative Council Library

Tuesday, January 27, 2015

Imperial Rescript (1/3/1939)

Updated January 27, 2015

Date:January 3, 1939 清宣宗道光十八年 (戊戌) 十一月十八 日 (丙辰) [the eighteenth day of the eleventh month in the eighteenth year of the reign of Tao-kuang]
Subject[1]:Lin Tse-hsu ordered to plug-up opium supplies and unroot opiate establishments; ordered Teng Ting-chen and I-liang to collaborate with Lin.

諭軍機大臣等、朕因近年鴉片煙傳染日深。紱銀出洋。銷耗彌甚。屢經降旨飭令該督等認真查辦。但錮蔽日久。恐一時未能盡行破除。若不清查來源。則此患伊於 胡底。昨經降旨特派湖廣總督林則徐馳赴粵省。查辦海口事件。并頒給欽差大臣關防。令該省水師兼歸節制。林則徐到粵后。自必遵旨竭力查辦。以清弊源。惟該省 窯口快蟹。以及開設煙館。販賣吸食。種種弊竇。必應隨地隨時。淨絕根株。著鄧廷楨、怡良、振刷精神。仍照舊分別查拏。毋稍松懈。斷不可存觀望之見。尤不可 有推諉之心。再鄧廷楨統轄兩省地方。事務殷繁。若專責以查辦鴉片。以及紋銀出洋。恐顧此失彼。轉不能專一心力。盡絕弊端。現派林則徐前往專辦此事。該督自 當益矢勤奮。盡泯畛域。應分辦者各盡己責。應商辦者會衕奏聞。趁此可乘之機。力救前此之失。總期積習永除。根株斷絕。想卿等必能體朕之心。為中國祛此一大 患也。將此諭令知之。

Source: 清實錄道光朝實錄 (Qing Shilu, Daoguangchao Shilu) [The Truthful Record of Qing Dynasty: The Truthful Record of the Reign of Daoguang]
[1] Subject was not written in any Imperial Rescript. What appears here has been written for the easy reference of the readership.

Friday, January 23, 2015

Imperial Rescript (5/9/1839)

Updated January 25, 2015

Date:May 9, 1839 清宣宗道光十九年 (己亥) 三月十九日 (乙卯) [the nineteenth day of the third month in the nineteenth year of the reign of Emperor Tao-kuang]
Subject[1]:Lin Tse-hsu to destroy the seized opium in Kuangtung

諭內閣、前據林則徐等馳奏、躉船鴉片盡數呈繳。請解京驗明燒毀。當降旨允行。本日據御史鄧瀛奏稱、廣東距京。程途遼遠。所繳煙土。為數較多。恐委員稽察難周。易啟偷漏抽換之弊等語。林則徐等經朕委任。此次查辦粵洋煙土。甚屬認真。朕斷不疑其稍有欺飾。且長途轉運。不無借資民力。著毋庸解送來京。即交林則 徐、鄧廷楨、怡良、於收繳完竣后。即在該處督率文武員弁。公衕查核。目擊銷毀。俾沿海居民及在粵夷人。共見共聞。咸知震詟。該大臣等惟當仰體朕意。核實稽 查。斷不准在事員弁人等稍滋弊混 。

The Grand Secretariat is hereby commanded: pertaining to the previous expressed memorial submitted by Lin Tse-hsu, etc., who reported the entire stockpile of opium from the opium hulks has been surrendered [by foreign opium smugglers]. Lin plead to have the said opium transported to Peking for inspection and destruction. An edict should be issued to give OUR assent accordingly.

The memorial submitted by Censor, Teng Ying, received today mentions that it may be hard to totally secure the transfer in view of the vast distance between Kwangtung and Peking and the large amount of opium in matter. It says further that this very likely would invite the occurrences of fraudulent incidents. It is also unavoidable, furthermore, that some burden will be cast upon the common people dwelling along the route of the transfer because of the far distance that needs to be covered.

Lin, etc., was appointed by US to suppress opium, at which they have performed diligently. WE have no doubt they are not the kind to commit deceitful or conspiratorial deeds, however minute.

Now therefore, command Lin not to transfer the said opium to Peking and instead have it destroyed locally. Lin, along with Teng Ting-chen [Deng Tingzhen] and I-liang, are to administer the destruction in public. Both civil and military officers shall take part in it to first carefully inspect the said opium and afterward witness its destruction. Use this occasion to demonstrate our resolve to dwellers by the seacoast as well as the foreign barbarians stationed in Kwangtung. The effect should be one that is shocking and fearful.

If only the said chancellors look carefully into and understand the true meaning of OUR thoughts on this matter with utmost respects, they would execute this task with accuracy and precision and not to allow the flourish of any fraudulent or confusing incidents, however slightest. (translated by Rudi Butt)

Several days after I have completed my translation I found a fraction of a document quoted in The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China and Australasia, Vol. 30, September – December, 1839, p.309. This must be the translation of the imperial edict issued by the the Grand Secretariat [translated as Cabinet Council in this document] to Lin, based on the instruction of the rescript I translated.

... a dispatch from the Cabinet Council, as follows:-

"This affair has been extremely well managed; and I, the emperor, certainly have no suspicion that there is any deception or glossing in the matter; but as to the request that the opium shall be sent to Peking to be destroyed, I consider that the distance is great and the road difficult, and it would require the strength of too many of the people; therefore there is no necessity to send it to Peking. Lin and his colleagues are to assemble the civil and military officers and destroy the opium before their eyes; thus manifesting to the natives dwelling on the sea coasts, and the foreigners of outside nations, an awful warning."

Source: 清實錄道光朝實錄 (Qing Shilu, Daoguangchao Shilu) [The Truthful Record of Qing Dynasty: The Truthful Record of the Reign of Daoguang]
[1] Subject was not written in any Imperial Rescript. What appears here has been written for the easy reference of the readership.

Thursday, January 22, 2015

Imperial Rescript (12/31/1838)

Updated January 23, 2015

Date:December 31, 1838 清宣宗道光十八年 (戊戌) 十一月十五日 (癸丑) [the fifteenth day of the eleventh month in the eighteenth year of the reign of Emperor Tao-kuang]
Subject[1]:Lin Tse-hsu (Lin Zexu) appointed Imperial Commissioner; ordered to proceed to Kwangtung with haste


Lin Tse-hsu, Viceroy of Hukwang, is hereby appointed Imperial Commissioner. He shall proceed to Kwangtung with haste to handle port and maritime affairs. He shall be given the command of the naval forces in that province. (translated by Rudi Butt)

Source: 清實錄道光朝實錄 (Qing Shilu, Daoguangchao Shilu) [The Truthful Record of Qing Dynasty: The Truthful Record of the Reign of Daoguang]
[1] Subject was not written in any Imperial Rescript. What appears here has been written for the easy reference of the readership.

Friday, January 16, 2015

Engraving of the Signing

Updated January 21, 2015

The Engraving

The engraving, titled The Signing and Sealing of the Treaty of Nanking, was the work of Scottish engraver John Burnet (b.1784-d.1868) after the painting of John Platt (b.1802-d.1857), Captain of Bengal Volunteers, depicting the scene of the execution of the Treaty in the State Cabin of HMS Cornwallis on August 29, 1842. It measures 40.8 cm x 85.8 cm and was published on April 20, 1846 by F.G. Moon of London. The article is currently stored [unknown whether it is actually shown] at the Foreign & Commonwealth Office, Whitehall, London.

I was able to find an image of the engraving in a slightly higher resolution which enables a clearer view including facial features of the people. Right beneath it is the key to the engraving in which each of the 56 persons captured in the original painting were numbered. Their names and designations are shown in the scrollable list placed below the key. Move the scroll bars to view both the engraving and its key.

Credit: The British Museum.

The Key Plate

The title of the key reads, "Names of the principal officers and official gentlemen who are represented in the engraving of the signing and sealing of the Treaty of Nanking in the Sate Cabin of HMS Cornwallis, 29th August, 1842. The time chosen by the artist was after the Treaty had been signed and sealed, and while the Admiral's Band was playing the National Anthem on the Deck."

Credit: The British Museum.
N.B. This is a scrollable list.
  1. Shirreff; Maj.; General Staff
  2. Henry Keppel; Capt., RN; CO, HMS Dido.
  3. Armine Simcoe Henry Mountain; Lt.-Col.; 26th Regt.; Dep. Adj.-Gen.
  4. Thomas Bouchier; Capt., RN; CO, HMS Blonde.
  5. Alexander George Fraser; 17th Lord Saltoun, Maj.-Gen., 98th Regt.
  6. Frederick Kingcomb, RN.
  7. Hugh Gough; Lt.Gen.; C-in-C, Expedition Force (Land).
  8. Henry Pottenger; British Envoy Extraordinary and Minister Plenipotentiary in China.
  9. Hwang Antung 黄恩彤, Mayor of Nanking.
  10. Elepoo 伊里布; Ch'ing Imperial Commissioner; S-in-C of peace mission; Lt.-Gen., Commander of Chapoo Garrison.
  11. Keying 耆英; Ch'ing Imperial Commissioner; head of peace mission; General of Canton Garrison.
  12. Robert N. Thom; Assistant Translator and Interpreter.
  13. William Parker; RAdm, RN; C-in-C, Expedition Force (Naval).
  14. Hienling 咸齢; Lt.-Gen.; under the command of Keying.
  15. George Alexander Malcolm; Maj., 3rd (Prince of Wales's) Dragoon Guards; Sec. of Legation.
  16. Peter Richards; Capt., RN; CO, HMS Cornwallis.
  17. Francis Spencer Hawkins; Brevet Lt.-Col., Com.-Gen.
  18. Wilson, Maj., Paymaster of the Forces.
  19. R. Barley
  20. Frederick William Grey; Capt., RN; CO, HMS Endymion.
  21. Moore; Maj.; JAG.
  22. Richard Collinson, Cdr, RN; HMS Plover.
  23. Heatley; Capt., 49th, D; Adj.-Gen.
  24. R.B. Watson, Cdr., RN; CO, HMS Modeste.
  25. Tudor, RN.
  26. Moorhead; Capt.; Com.-Gen.
  27. Halstead, Capt., RN.
  28. M'Cleverty, Cdr., RN.
  29. Grahame; army doctor; Surgeon to C-in-C.
  30. Fawett; Lt.-Col.; 55th.
  31. Kingcome, Capt., RN.
  32. Cunynghame; Capt.; ADC.
  33. Campbell; Lt.-Col.; 98th.
  34. Grant; Maj.; 9th Lancers.
  35. M. Sobadar; Maj., Sappers, ADC
  36. J.B. Gough; Lt.-Col.; 3rd Light Dragoon; QMG.
  37. Richard Woosnam; army doctor; Surgeon to Henry Pottinger; Assistant Secretary of Legation.
  38. W. Gabbatt, Lt., Madras Horse Artillery, ADC
  39. John Robert Morrison; Chinese Secretary and Interpreter.
  40. Charles Gutzlaff 郭士立; Interpreter; missionary.
  41. Niukien 牛鑑; Viceroy of Liang-Kiang.
  42. C.E. Tennant; Cdr., RN; Flag Lieut. to RAdm. Parker.
  43. Benjamin Chimmo; Naval Sec. to RAdm. Parker and Cdr. Tennant.
  44. Grey Skipwith; Lt., RN; HMS Cornwallis.
  45. George Tradescant Lay; Interpreter; missionary belonged to the British and Foreign Bible Society.
  46. Charles Frederick; Cdr., RN; CO, HMS Apollo.
  47. Henry Kellett, Cdr., RN; HMS Starling.
  48. William Hutcheon Hall; Capt., RN; CO, HCS, Nemesis.
  49. Blundell; Lt.-Col., Madras Artillery
  50. Pratt, Lt.-Col., Cameronians
  51. Pears; Capt.; Madras Engineers
  52. Thomas Maitland, Capt., RN; CO, HMS Wellesley.
  53. Lloyd, Lt.-Col.; Bengal Volunteers.
  54. Anstruther; Maj.; Madras Artillery.
  55. Montgomery; Lt.-Col.; Madras Artillery.
  56. Knowles; Lt.-Col.; Bengal Royal Artillery.

A Few Observations

John Platt was an incredibly observant and gifted painter. The sketch was made immediately after the Treaty had been signed and sealed, clearly with great haste, since there were 56 people he needed to draw and since also the Ch'ing mission, I don't think, had the patience for a half-hour-long sitting before retiring from humiliating scene. The triumphant British were elated; Keying and his entourage weren't. Now, even if Platt was given two hours, he would not have been able to sketch 56 facial features. I think what he did was he sketched the Ch'ing delegates whenever he could see them at negotiation and other ceremonial sessions that took place before the day of the signing. As for the key figures of the British mission and the expedition force, he probably had already a stockpile of what he had made since his arrival in China that he could use for this painting. For the rest of all the other officers, since they didn't have much to do now that the fighting was over and they wouldn't be withdrawing in another two weeks, so he went by and made sketches of them, leisurely.

The vast difference in attire between the two missions is simply too noticeable to be ignored. British military officers turned up in full dress uniform with swords, while their civilian counterparts also dressed formally in daytime tailcoats. Contrary to the British attendees, all members of the Ch'ing mission, with the exception of Niukien (#41), wore the most casual order of robe designated for Ch'ing officials – changfu 常服 – which was more or less the equivalent of mufti in the Western dress code. Collarless and without the buzi 補子 (Mandarin square) normally found in robes of higher order in the dress code, changfu was worn only in one's own office while not meeting anyone from outside. Their head wear was the matching bianmao 便帽, or casual hat. Why were they dressed like that? Keying gave the explanation that since they (Elepoo and himself) came to Nanking in a great haste and traveling light, they didn't bring their formal wear. But then both of them had been in Nanking for over two weeks and there were plenty of time to send for their dresses. Hwang Antung (#9), Puchingsz of Kongning Fu 江寧布政使 (Mayor of Nanking) did not need to send for his dress, yet he came to the signing in changfu. The next question that comes to my mind is why was Niukien dressed differently than everybody else? He was wearing bufu 補服, or the formal robe with Mandarin square, and court necklace of amber beads 朝珠. Was any part of these a deliberate act? I suppose I'll never find out exactly what transpired.

There probably was no established rules that governed how a Ch'ing official should dress when meeting with representatives of a foreign nation at a place where Ch'ing government had no jurisdiction. The below image (of an engraving and etching after the drawing of Harry Francis Colville Darell, Bt. Lt.-Col., ADC to Bremer) shows an example at the opposite extreme. It depicted the July 4, 1840 meeting on board HMS Wellesley off Chusan between John Gordor Bremer, Commodore of the British Expedition, and Chang Chaoufa (Zhang Chaofa) 張朝發, Commandant of Ting-hai 定海總兵.

The three seated Ch'ing officials were: Chang; Yaou Kwaetseang (Yao Huaixiang) 姚懷祥, acting Chief Magistrate of Chusan; and Tseen Pinghwan (Qian Binghuan ) 錢炳煥, Chang's Flag Captain. Chang and Tseen were dressed in jifu 吉服 including the brilliantly embroidered python robe 蟒袍, one of the top orders in Ch'ing official dress code inferior only to court dress. Additionally, Chang wore a piling 披領 (ceremonial collar). Yaou wore bufu.

The day after the meeting, whereat Chang was asked by Bremer to surrender and he refused, the British expeditionary force launched a general attack on Chang's fleet and the wall city of Ting-hai. Chang was wounded and died soon after. Tseen was also wounded but survived. Yaou killed himself when the wall city fell on the second (and the last) day of the battle.

The Tragic Death of the Soldier Painter

Colonel John Platt killed by the mutineers at Mhow, 1st July 1857, from 'The History of the Indian Mutiny', engraving, published in 1858.John Platt was born at Kings Langley, Hertfordshire, England in April 1802. He joined the 25th Bengal Native Infantry in July 1820 as an ensign. The infantry was part of the Bengal Army that belonged to the East India Company. He transferred to the 23rd Native Infantry in 1824 and afterward to the 2nd Volunteer Battalion, the latter was sent to China as a part of the British expeditionary force. With it, Platt arrived in China in June 1841 and stayed through the conflict till its end in August 1842. Between 1843 and 1847, he served as commandant of the 2nd Regiment of Oudh Light Infantry and was advanced to Major. He then returned to his old regiment, the 23rd Native Infantry, and in June 1853 was appointed Lieutenant-Colonel as well as commander of the regiment. Platt was killed by mutineers of his own regiment at Mhow on July 1, 1857. His body was found in the following morning lying on the parade ground inside the cantonments with multiple gunshot wounds and gashes of a tulwar.

Platt was the second of four children of Rev. Alexander Platt (curate of All Saints Church, Kings Langley 1796-1806) and Charlotte [maiden name unknown]. John Platt was married to Charlotte Atkinson.

Other Works of Art by John Platt

Hog Hunting. The Tired Pig., 1850, aquatint, published by Fores of London, ca.1850.

Hog Hunting, The Find, engraving, published by Fores of London, ca.1840.

Wednesday, January 14, 2015

Reading Room

Updated February 3, 2015

  1. This is a sortable table. Click on the table headers to sort.
  2. Online reading for some of the titles listed here offer only limited access.
  3. Recommendations on reading materials not already listed are very welcome.

Title Author / Publishing Info. Read
Chinese War: An Account of All the Operations of the British Forces from the Commencement to the Treaty of NankingOuchterlony, John, London: Saunders and Otley, 1844Read
Chinese Repository, The, Vol. 11, from January to December, 1842Canton: the Proprietors, 1842Read
Statement of Claims of the British Subjects Interested in Opium Surrendered to Captain Elliot at Canton for the Public ServiceLondon: Pelham, Richardson, 1840.Read
An Unpublished Account of the First Opium War of 1842: The Journal of Henry LyonJohn J. Burns Library's Blog, July 1, 2013Read
Traditional Government in Imperial China: A Critical AnalysisCh'ien Mu, (translated by Hsueh Chu-tu & Totten, George O.), Hong Kong: The Chinese University of Hong Kong, 1982Read
Correspondence Respecting Compensation for the Opium Surrendered at Canton in 18391839Read
Doing in China: Being the Personal Narrative of an Officer Engaged in the Late Chinese Expedition, from the Recapture of Chusan in 1841, to the Peace of Nanking in 1842Murray, Alexander, London, Richard Benntley, 1843Read
First Opium War, The, the Anglo-Chinese War of 1839-1842Peter C. Perdue, MIT Visualizing CulturesRead
道光事典余新忠, 台北市, 遠流出版事業股份有限公司, 2006Read
籌辦夷務始末文慶, 花沙納, 朱鳳標, 阿靈阿, 趙光, 彭蘊章, 周祖培, 瑞常, 穆蔭, 雙福, 咸豐六年 (1856)Read
Treaty of Nanking, The: Form and the Foreign Office, 1842-43Wood, R. Derek, Journal of Imperial and Commonwealth History, May 1996, Vol. 24(2), pp.181-196Read
新教傳教士郭實獵在浙江李赛, 浙江大學碩士學位論文, 2006Read
W.L. Clowes on the First Anglo-Chinese War ("Opium war") of 1838 - 1842William Loney RNRead
鴉片戰爭后期中英善后交涉郭衛東, 社會科學研究, 1996年第4期Read
Chinese Dress: From Qing Dynasty to the PresentGarrett, Valery, Tuttle Publishing, 2013Read
Narrative of the Expedition to China from the Commencement of the War to Its Termination in 1842, Vol. 2Bingham, J. Elliot, London: Henry Colburn, 1843Read
China's Intercourse with EuropeParker, E.H., Hong Kong: Kelly & WalshRead
Chinese Account of the Opium WarParker, E.H., Hong Kong: Kelly & Walsh, 1888Read
Defending Christianity in China: The Jesuit Defense of Christianity in the "Lettres Edifiantes Et Curieuses" & "Ruijianlu" in Relation to the Yongzheng Proscription of 1724Marinescu, Jocelyn M.N., ProQuest, 2008Read
Crisis in the Opium Traffic: Being an Account of the Proceedings of the Chinese Government to Suppress that Trade, with the Notices, Edicts, &c., Relating TheretoCanton: Office of the Cinese Repository, 1839Read
Englishman in China During the Victorian Era as Illustrated in the Career of Sir Rutherford Alcock, TheMichie, Alexander, London: William Blackwood & Sons.Read
Final Report Royal Commission on Opium, Vol. 6Royal Commission on Opium, 1895Read
中國近代史, Vol. 1徐中約, Chinese University Press, 2001 Read
Grounds of Judgment: Extraterritoriality and Imperial Power in Nineteenth-Century China and JapanCassel, Par Kristoffer, Oxford University Press, 2012Read
Treaties, Conventions, etc., between China and Foreign States, Vol. 1, Second EditionShanghai: Inspector General, the Maritime Customs, 1917Read

Tuesday, January 13, 2015

Indemnity of the Opium Dealers

Updated January 25, 2015

The Surrender of Opium

20,283 chests was counted when the surrender of opium was completed on March 21, 1839. Each chest of raw opium contained 40 balls of 3 catties each in weight, thus the total weight came up to 120 catties (or roughly 73kg) per chest on average. The contraband confiscated in Canton alone in one operation amounted to a staggering 2,433 metric ton. I was able to trace the owners of 17,920 chests (as shown in the table below), and believe the rest of them were mostly Parsi dealers. Perhaps one day (not very soon) I will find all of them.

Jardine, Matheson & Co.7,341including 5,000 chests owned by its Parsee partners.
Dent & Co. 1,723
Daniel & Co.1,466
MacVicar & Co.1,146
Lindsay & Co.341
W. & J. Gemmell 266
John Thacker86Master mariner.
Turner & Co.71
Joseph & William Cragg & Co.53Dissolved in 1939. Gibb Livington & Co. was charge to take care of all outstanding matters.
Eglinton Maclean & Co.50
Bell & Co. 40
Gibb, Livingston & Co.29
Abaden & Jam Sooden25
James Starkey10Master mariner, captain of schooner "Thistle". Previously a partner with Dirom & Co. of Canton.
Jamieson & How10
A.I. Smith7
Bibby Adam & Co.5Withdrew from China in 1840.
Eneas Fraser, Jr.2
Total British12,683
Heerjeehboy Rustomjee1,700
Dadabhoy & Manockje Rustomkee970
Cowasjee Eduljee232
Nasserwanjee Dorabjee127
Nasserwanjee Bomonjee Mody92
Hormuzjee Framjee73
Cowasjee Saporjee67
Dassabhoy Hormutzjee Dorabjee67
Burjorjee Monackjee54
Rustomjee Ruttonjee & Co.14
Cowasjee Saporjee Taback13
Framjee Jametjee12
Pallanjee Nasserwanjee9
Hormuzjee Byramjee4
Bomanjee Hosonojee3
Abdoolally Ebahim & Co. 鴨都喇利unk.Ran the first cross-harbor ferry service between Tsimshatsui and Central (1842). Claimed to have received compensation from the British government in 1864, amount received unknown. Remains active in Hong Kong under the name of Abdoolally Ebrahim Group.
Total Parsi3,437
Russell & Co.1,437
Wetmore & Co.103Ceased to deal in opium from 1842.
Fox, Rawson & Co.30
Alexander Calder15
Total American1,585
Joseph de Souza183
Edward Pereira33
Total Portuguese216


Monday, January 12, 2015

Imperial Proclamation (6/5/1842)

Updated January 13, 2015

Date:June 5, 1842 清宣宗道光二十二年(壬寅)四月二十七日(乙巳 )(the twenty seventh day of the fourth month in the twenty second year of the reign of Tao-kuang)
Subject Matter:The Suppression of Opium and the British Invasion

I, the Emperor, on account of opium flowing like poison into China, bringing down calamities on the people, have in former years sent down, in edicts, my express orders directing it to be strictly prohibited in every province.
Again, and a third time have I, with the most assiduous heedfulness, given clear and explicit orders and warnings; and because Canton was the place were the outside barbarians traded, I gave especial orders to Lin Tsihseu to proceed thither, examine into and manage the business.
The barbarians of each nation eagerly and sincerely obeyed the restraints, and bound themselves by promises; it was only the English barbarian, Elliot, on account of the destruction of the opium dirt, made a pretense to cause disturbance.
Lin, on account of his bad management, was immediately degraded and banished to the frontier.
Yet the said rebel, in the 6th month of the twentieth year of Taoukgang, rat like, sneaked into the waters of the province of Chekeang, and stealthily took possession of the city of Ting Hae, and then proceeded to the offing of Teentsing, announcing the presentation of a petition.
I, the Emperor, consider China [middle, or Middle Kingdom] and outside nations with one heart and mind, and esteem it of importance to cherish and treat with mildness, men from afar, and not contemplating that his (Elliot's) first thoughts were of rebellion, and to tell and explain his grievances, his last, without any consideration of (his country's trade) being rejected and cut off, I again commanded Keshen to proceed to Canton, and verify to examine into and manage the facts.
Further, the General Eleppo, the commissioner in the province of Chekeang, seized the barbarian officer Gantihhae, (Anstruther) and many others, and by great favor saved them from death; and when Tin Hae was evacuated (by the English) sent them back to their country.
But the said barbarian, crafty and deceitful, still begging with unsatiated appetite, and clearly understanding the pacific intentions and language of Keshen, who did not prepare proper means od defense, at length summoned troops, and first attacked successively the forts at Shakeo and Takeo (Chuenpe and Tykoktow); killed my great officers, and troubled my blackhaired race on the coasts;
and the causes of disturbance and war have been occasioned by the selfish selling of opium by the rebellious foreigners; further, he openly begged for favors, and secretly used deceptive schemes; turning his back upon truth, and making useless all my favors. At such conduct both gods and men were indignant, and I, the Emperor, ordered my officers to lead forth my troops. These are the real circumstances of the case.
When the rebel-quelling general, Yih, arrived at Canton, the rebellious foreigners, rat like, entered the inner waters, spying about the provincial city; and the reason that the great officers then assembled their troops, was occasioned by the avaricious and greedy desire for profit of the said rebel, who, meditating trade, earnestly begged that the debts owing by the Hong merchants to the said foreigners, should be paid.
I, the Emperor, treat all with perfect sincerity, and have never cherished ill feelings in my bosom. Thus, if he (Elliot) really obtained profit, he said there should be peace, and cause disturbance. On this account, I considered the bestowal of this favor (the six million dollars) as a very little matter, and certainly did not grudge it. Doltish fool of a hateful race! how can he attempt to equal or rival me, the Emperor of the heavenly dynasty? But my anxious thoughts and care being for my people in the maritime provinces, could not but comply with the force of circumstances. Who could have imagined that the rebellious foreigner cherished such an evil heart in his bosom, deceiving heaven and opposing reason?
The province of Canton was left in quiet, but the provinces of Fuhkeen and Chekeang were again agitated like ocean waves; Ting-Hea was again furtively watched, and the city again invaded and kept; and my minister (Yukeen) died in defense of his country; and my officers threw away their lives, and numbers of my people were slaughtered. Elliot's crimes it is difficult to number.
I especially ordered the awe-inspiring General Yihking and others, to lead on their troops, attack and exterminate the English. Some time ago the robbers retired from Ning-po, and then laid Chappoo in ruins. When the said foreigner was in the province of Canton, after his schemes were satiated, he went to Chekeang, where he plundered the province for the subsistence of his army,
such is his cruel, barbarous disposition; but the measure of his iniquities is full, and no larger respite will be granted by heaven. When the heavens above look down on his deeds, the barbarian will surely be exterminated. What crimes have my people committed, that they should be afflicted with such cruel calamities?
On self-examination, my mind (origl. five viscera) is filled with anxiety and distress; and my every thought is, that the poisonous sprout (Elliot) is not yet cut off, and that I cannot rescue my subjects; with a painful feelings I severely blame myself and hate myself for being unequal to my duties: for me repose by day or night is difficult.
Ye generals, leaders, governors, lieutenant-governors, the civil and military officers at Peking and in the provinces, all ye ministers should regard the state of my mind, and hasten to save the people, and not have a thought of repose, but attend to the present emergency and divest yourself of selfishness and deceptive conduct, to cause your name not to stink in after times.
As to officers and men always talking of the strength of their ships and their destruction gunnery; the murderous fire of which it is hard to bear; why immediately they see the robbers they are frightened, and fly like the wind in disorder; and then the thieves entered the river without your knowledge; and soon then became aware of your danger,
and the troops rushed forward with ardor, and entering into battle, did not retreat, and they were also aided by the bold villages. But the power of lord and guest (the Emperor and Captain Elliot) is by no means equal, and the difference in the numbers of the people of our countries is great, but on account of the richness of my country, he has availed himself of an opportunity for making war; but what difficulty will there be in conquering him? As such are the barbarous dispositions of the rebellious barbarians, the spirits of my troops are not equal to them.
The connection of the native traitors with rebellious barbarians, has been caused by the poverty of the ignorant people, or it has sprung from their distressing difficulties, and on account of profit, thus have they been deceived, and induced to connect themselves willingly with robbers, that they might procure sufficient food for their families; and thus, through their avidity the robbers have attacked and plundered several places, and when the robbers came, they were sent in advance, and thus they were the first exposed to slaughter; and when the robbers retired, they were placed in the rear, and were subject to seizure by the troops, and forthwith executed. Yet the people have the disposition of men, and should know how to repent and return to their allegiance.
I, the Emperor, am your heavenly appointed lord; if you will only regard that which is before your eyes, you will rest in repose, and not be troubled with great affairs hereafter. But had I been careless of the broad-flowing poison and not have prohibited it, I should firstly have been ungrateful to my imperial father, from whom I received the important favor of the government of the empire; and secondly, I should have proved myself incapable of preserving the lives of my people; thus, how was it possible for me to exert my utmost strength in prohibiting it?
Now, although the traitors and barbarians are causing trouble, and on account of avaricious desires of profit are daily committing murder and robbery, all ye leaders, ministers, soldiers, &c., as you have received my gracious favors, you should manifest heavenly principles and a good heart, and clearly explain the laws, and the excite the valiant, and those who strive to be first on them rewards shall be forthwith conferred; but for those who retreat, instantly execute them without mercy. If these orders are obeyed, what attack will they not be equal to? And what place will they not be able to hold?
To officers who have managed badly before (Lin, Keshen, &c.), each have been dismissed; yet if they atone for their crimes and established meritorious deeds hereafter, they may be excused; but if they again lose the opportunity, and ruin my people, and connive with the foreigners, then shall they be treated according to the severest course of law, and I shall be unable to show my further indulgence.
Amongst the multitude of my people there are many valiant men of talent; excite them to a righteous zeal, to preserve themselves and their country; and the officers and troops to recover the lost cities; to guard important passes from the entrance of the robbers; to burn the barbarians' ships, and seize the leaders of the robbers; or to lay hold of the act by the principles of right reason, and announce to all the foreigners, that they cause the English to know, that if they repent, and are able to length of time to establish meritorious deeds, they shall become the recipients of inexhaustible and the greatest favors.
The first affairs is, to prohibit opium, that I may compassionate the people's lives; in opposing the enemy, the which is to preserve the people's lives; I, the Emperor, have night and morning anxious thoughts, and cannot but attend to the most trifling concerns;
all ye ministers should agree together in the measures of managing business, and excite the troops to battle, devising measures, exciting the people to join the ranks, without disorder or hurry; if the civil and military officers act thus we can exclude the barbarian worthless sprouts, sweeping them into the depths of the wide ocean, and give to the people of the empire to enjoy the blessings of peace and tranquility.
This is special as concerning the management of the affairs relating to the barbarians from first to last: for my first thought is to exclude calamities from the people.
A special edict. Let it be made known far and near. Respect this. 4th moon, 27th day (June 5).

Translation by John Slade, Editor of Canton Register.

Source: Chinese: 清實錄道光朝實錄 (Qing Shilu, Daoguangchao Shilu) [The Truthful Record of Qing Dynasty: The Truthful Record of the Reign of Daoguang]. English translation: Murray, Alexander, Doing in China: Being the Personal Narrative of An Officer Engaged in the Late Chinese Expedition, from the Recapture of Chusan in 1841, to the Peace of Nanking in 1842, London, Richard Benntley, 1843.

Sunday, January 11, 2015

Imperial Rescript (5/25/1842)

Updated January 12, 2015

Date:May 25, 1842 清宣宗道光二十二年(壬寅)四月十六日(甲午)(the sixteenth day of the fourth month in the twenty second year of the reign of Tao-kuang)
Subject:Keying to take up the postponed appointment of General of the Canton Garrison

又諭、本日已降旨著耆英馳驛前赴廣州將軍之任矣。廣東自上年英逆犯順以來。占據香港。闖入虎門。前據奕山等奏報。香港未能即時收復。惟議守省 城。以填塞省河為先。其次修筑虎門炮台。進取方有把握等語。現在省河填塞究竟若何。是否足資抵御。其虎門炮台。現在是否動工修筑。何時可以工竣。著耆英到 任后確切查明。據實具奏。至香港地方。豈容被逆夷久據。現在廣東炮台等工。如已妥為豫備。正可乘機進取。明攻暗襲。收復香港。以伸國威。即著責成該將軍一 力籌辦。毋負委任。其欽差大臣關防。即著帶赴廣東任所。將此由六百里加緊諭令知之。

Source: 清實錄道光朝實錄 (Qing Shilu, Daoguangchao Shilu) [The Truthful Record of Qing Dynasty: The Truthful Record of the Reign of Daoguang]

Friday, January 9, 2015

British Expeditionary Force (Naval), Nanking

Updated January 12, 2015

The final stage of the campaign to invade Nanking began ten days after the fall of Shanghai. On June 29, 1842, a reconnaissance squadron of five ships, namely: HMS Starling, HMS Plover, HMS Modeste, HMS Clio and HCS[1]. Phlegethon, went up the river to look for deep water channel. On July 4, Phlegethon returned and reported a free passage; the expeditionary force started the advance two days later. The squadron was made up of 63 ships, comprising 15 vessels in the fighting-escorting contingent and 48 vessels in the transportation one. There were eight armed steamers; all but one were owned by the East India Company. Ching-Keang-Foo, the last fortress that guarded Nanking, was attacked on July 21 and fell to the British on the same day. On August 3, a part of the fleet got under weight and began its advance to Nanking. By the 9th the whole had arrived and the debarkation began. On the 11th all thing were in readiness for an attack. Peace talks got underway the following day and in less then three weeks the Treaty was concluded and signed. Not a single shot was fired since the arrival of the expeditionary force at Nanking, except for the gun salutes executed upon the boarding of the head of the Dai Ch'ing mission on HMS Cornwallis on August 29, for the signing of the Treaty.

Following the signing of the Treaty, the force began its withdrawal on September 14, 1842; by October 6 the expeditionary force had completely withdrawn from the Yangtze River.

Order of Sailing of the Squadron

Advanced Squadron - Surveying
StarlingHMS Lark Class cutter; 1829-44; 6 guns; normal 30 crew; CO: Cdr. Henry Kellett, RN [Final rank: VAdm. 1868].
ModesteHMS; 18 guns; CO: Cdr. R.B. Watson.
PhlegethonHCS armed steamer; CO: Lt. J. McCleverty.

HMS Plover, Illustrated London News 1848.
PloverHMS survey cutter; previously mercantile ship Bentinck; purchased 1842, sold 1854; 6 guns, CO: Cdr. Richard Collinson, RN [Ret.Adm. 1875].
ClioHMS; 16 guns; CO: Cdr. Edward Norwich Troubridge, RN [Capt. 1842].
MedusaHCS armed steamer; CO: Lt. Hewitt.
General Squadron
CornwallisHMS; 72 guns; CO: Capt. Peter Richards, RN [Ret.Adm. 1865]; flagship of RAdm. William Parker, C-in-C, naval forces.
First Division
Fighting Contingent / Escort Ships
CalliopeHMS armed steamer; 26 guns; CO: Capt. Augustus Leopold Kuper, RN [Adm. 1872].
VixenHCS armed steamer; CO: Capt. H. Boyes.
MarionLt. Gen. Hugh Gough, C-in-C, land forces, and general staff.
Atiet RahomanSappers and miners.
John FlemingSappers and miners.
John CooperCoals.
MarthaCoal and followers.
Second Division
Fighting Contingent / Escort Ships
BlondeHMS Apollo class frigate; 1819-1895; 42 guns; 1,130 tons; CO: Capt. Thomas Bouchier, RN; [renamed HMS Calypso in 1870].
AucklandHCS armed steamer; CO: Capt. R. Ethersay.
Transports – artillery brigade
SophiaRoyal Artillery.
Rustomjee CowasjeeHQ, Madras Artillery.
PalmysHQ, Madras Artillery.
GipseyPower and horses.
Lady FloraPower and horses.
City of LondonHorse artillery.
City of DefianceHorse artillery.
LivingstoneArtillery followers.
LysanderArtillery followers.
Third Division
Fighting Contingent / Escort Ships / Troop Ships
BelleisleHMS troop ship; CO: Capt. J. Kingcomb; carrying Maj Gen Saltoun, and 98th Regt.
JupiterHMS troop ship; CO: Lt. G.B. Hoffmeister; carrying 26th Regt.
QueenHCS armed steamer; CO: Master W. Warden.
Transports - 1st or Right Brigade
RobatesFlank companies, 41st Madras Native Infantry.
Surat MerchantFollowers.
Flower of UgieFollowers.
BurhampooterHQ, Bengal Volunteers.
MariaBengal Volunteers
TamerlaneBengal Volunteers
PercyBengal Volunteers
WarriorBengal Volunteers
City of PalacesBengal Volunteers
Fourth Division
Fighting Contingent / Escort Ships
EndymionHMS; 44 guns; CO: Capt. Frederick William Grey, RN [Adm. 1865].
SesostrisHCS armed steamer; CO: Capt. H.A. Ormsby.
Transports - 2nd or Center Brigade
OrientMaj. Gen. Schoedde and 55th Regt.
Coromandel55th Regt.
Worcester55th Regt.
William Turner6th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Walmer Castle6th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Runnymede6th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
William Money2nd Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Urgent2nd Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Duke of Bedford2nd Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Rohomany2nd Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Fifth Division
Fighting Contingent / Escort Ships
DidoHMS; 20 guns; CO: Capt. Henry Keppel.
TenasserimHCS armed steamer; CO: Capt. P. Wall.
Transports - 3rd or Left Brigade
ApolloHMS troop ship; CO: Cdr. Frederick; carrying Maj. Gen. Bartley and 49th Regt.
Minerva49th Regt.
RattlesnakeHMS Atholl Class troop ship; 1822-60; 28 guns; carrying 18th Regt..
Ernaad18th Regt.
Belle Alliance18th Regt.
Ernaad18th Regt.
Mallaked Behar18th Regt.
Cusetjee Cowasjee11th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Pekin11th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Victoria11th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.
Faize Robanny11th Regt., Madras Native Infantry.

[1] HCS means Honorable Company's (East India Company) Ship. The ships were seconded [leased] to the expeditionary force. Total payments due to the East India Company by the British government for reimbursement of its cost in the First Opium War stood at £572,000 in the beginning of July 1842.

Thursday, January 8, 2015

Richard Woosnam 吳士南

Updated January 25, 2015

Woosnam was born in Llanidloes, Montgomeryshire, Wales on April 9, 1815. He was the third son of Bowen Woosnam and Elizabeth Cole. Bowen Woosnam, a solicitor by profession, was the first Mayor of Glandwr, Llanidloes, Montgom. Richard Woosnam attended the Gonville and Caius College of the University of Cambridge where he received a Bachelor of Arts degree in 1840 and a Master of Arts degree in 1845. He was admitted to the Royal College of Surgeons as a member in 1840. He joined the Bombay Army on February 15, 1840 as an assistant surgeon in the Indian Medical Service and was posted at Aden. He became a surgeon on January 7, 1853 and retired on April 26, 1859.

He became Henry Pottinger's surgeon in 1841 and was later made Assistant Secretary of Legation. Except when campaigning with Pottinger in China, Woosnam was stationed in Hong Kong between 1841 and 1844. In 1843, he was appointed Deputy Colonial Secretary as well as a Justice of the Peace (official), one of the first 44 JPs appointed for Hong Kong. He became Pottinger's secretary during the time when the latter was the governor of Cape of Good Hope (1846-47) and of Madras (1847-54). Woosnam retied to Glandwr, Llanidloes, Wales in 1859. He resided at Knapp Charlton Kings, near Cheltenham in 1862. He was Justice of the Peace of Breconshire. Magistrate, Brecknock and Montgomery. He was chairman of the combined school-boards of the borough and parish of Llanidloes. He was appointed High Sheriff of Montgomeryshire in 1878. He died on November 27, 1888 in Tyn-y-graig, Co. Brecon (or Builth) and was buried in Llanidloes. Woosnam was awarded the China War Medal (1842) in 1843.

Woosnam was married to Margaret Bell, daughter of William Bell, of Co. Kildare. The marriage bore six children: Margaret Helena Woosnam, (b.1847-d.1928); Caroline Eliza Woosnam (b.1849); Bowen Pottinger Woosnam (b.1850-d.1909); Richard Burgass Woosnam (b. September 19, 1851, Madras; BA 1874; solicitor, address: Newton Abbot, Devon); and Charles William Woosnam (b.1854-d.1920); and Mary Woosnam (b.1857).

The silblings of Richard Woosnam were: Charles Thomas Woosnam (solicitor); James Bowen Woosnam[1]; and Elizabeth Alice Woosnam (wife of the Rev. George Fisher, of the Royal Hospital Greenwich).

[Woosnam owned two house situated (easternmost) on Queen's Road in 1860. He gave instructions to Jardine, Matheson & Co., as his agent, to dispose of these properties on July 9, 1862.]

[1] James Bowen Woosnam, born in 1812, was in the army and his final rank was Army Major-General, Inspector-General of Ordnance. He was married to Agnes Bell, sister of Margaret Bell, Richard Woosnam's wife. They lived in India between 1841 and 1860, and raised six daughters and two sons, all born in India. Their second daughter Esther (Etty), d.1842, was the author of two notable books about women in the Bible: Women of the Bible, Old Testament (London: Partridge, 1881) and Women of the Bible, New Testament (London: Partridge, 1885).

Selected bibliography: The Asiatic Journal and Monthly Register for British and Foreign India, China, and Australia, September - December, 1840, London: Wm. H. Allen & Co., 1840. Biographical History of Gonville and Caius College: 1349-1895. Calendar of Probates and Administration Granted by the Supreme Court of Hong Kong during the Year 1892. de Groot, Christiana (Ed.), Taylor, Marion Ann (Ed.), Recovering Nineteenth-century Women Interpreters of the Bible, [s.l.]:Society of Biblical  Literature, 2007. Janus: the Jardine Matheson Archive [internet]. The Peerage [internet]. rootsweb [internet].

Imperial Rescript (8/22/1842)

Update January 29, 2015

Date:August 22, 184 清宣宗道光二十二年(壬寅)七月十七日(癸亥)[the seventeenth day of the seven month in the twenty second year of the reign of Tao-kuang]
Subject[1]:The Emperor's conditional acceptance of the British peace terms.

諭軍機大臣等、耆英等奏、連日與英夷會議。粗定條約一摺。覽奏忿恨之至。朕因億萬生靈所系。實關天下大局。故雖憤悶莫釋。不得不勉允所 請。藉作一勞永逸之計。非僅為保全江浙兩省而然也。該大臣等所稱可救然眉。是徒知救急於目前。并未計貽憂於日后。所商各條內尚有應行籌酌之處。即如該夷船只。既退出長江。又退出招寶山。其前請之通商貿易五處。除福州外。其廣州、廈門、寧波、上海、四處。均准其來往貿易。不得占據久住。至藉詞索欠一節。該國與內地通商。已二百年。從前貨物交易。銀錢往來。俱系自行經理。我國官員。向不過問。且此中貿易曲折。價值低昂。甚為瑣屑。況各國言語不通。斷非地方官所能經理。嗣后各處通商。自應仍照舊章。毋庸更改。其各省貿易。該夷自納稅銀。由副領事親赴海關交納。不經行商之手一節。有無窒礙漸滋流弊之處。仍著該大臣 等再行妥議具奏。經此議定之后。該大臣等務當告以大皇帝相待以誠。允准通商。汝國亦應以誠相待。斷不准再啟兵端。違悖天理。不但業經滋擾各省。不得復來尋釁。即沿海之廣東福建台灣浙江江南山東直隸奉天各省地面。亦不准夷船駛入。各省官兵。應撤應留。我國自有斟酌。至內地舊有城池墩壘并炮台等項。亦應次第修 筑以復舊規。并非創自今日。此系為防緝洋盜起見。不必妄生疑慮。其有他省現尚不知消息。見有夷船駛入。輒行攻擊者。亦不得藉為口實。以上各節。總在該大臣 等深思遠慮。切實定議。永杜兵萌。不可稍涉含糊。將就目前。仍成不了之局。慎之慎之。本日據程矞釆片奏、佛啷哂亞國夷人。前往吳淞江口等語。該夷所請各節。是否另有詭計。諒該大臣等於接到該撫信函后。自必妥商酌辦矣。程矞釆及奕山等前陳各片。俱著鈔給閱看。將此由六百里加緊諭令知之。

[On the 27th day of the 7th moon (Sept. 1), the following imperial edict was received.]

"Keying and his colleagues have sent up a document, containing a report and rough sketch of the articles of the convention discussed at a personal conference [with H. B. M's Plenipotentiary in China].

I have inspected the report, and have a full knowledge of the whole of it.

I, the Emperor, seriously considering the evils to the uncountable number of the people, and the important consequences to the greatness, power, and station of the empire; and I cannot avoid being constrained and forced to grant what is requested ; it is but one time of bitterness and trouble, but then, ease, repose, and peace may be reckoned on for ever; and not only the two provinces of Keangsoo and Chekeang be preserved entire, but the empire will be held together in its integrity! As to those items in the report relating to trade, there are some that are improper and require further consideration. Now, as the barbarian ships are willing to leave the Chang river, and are also willing to retire from Chaoupaou hill; that which they have before requested relative to a free trade at five ports, the country at Fuhchow must be excluded; permission to trade thither cannot by any means be granted, but another port may be exchanged for it; they may be allowed to trade, coming and going, at the four ports of Canton, Amoy, Ningpo, and Shanghae.

As to the matter of the Hong merchants' debts, the said great ministers must necessarily accommodate themselves to circumstances, and in a perspicuous edict (explain the matter thus to the English).

“The said nation has traded with China for more than 200 years, and heretofore all has been harmony and good will; and the trade has always been transacted by barter and money. But as the Hong merchants and yourselves have between you mutually transacted the affairs of trade, our public officers have hitherto never examined into or troubled themselves about the trade. The affairs of the rise and fall in prices, whether high or low, are very petty, trifling matters. Further, our speech and language are unintelligible to each other; and most decidedly, the district officers will not be able to manage the matter."

Hereafter, the Chinese merchants at all the ports will adopt extraordinary modes of giving trouble and cheating, even to cutting—i.e. demand- ing excessive discounts ; when there will be no hindrance or fear of laying a clear statement of the case before the district officers, who will certainly punish the said merchant (delinquent) : decidedly there will he no indulgence shown. As to the £6,000,000, it is proper that I should give them, by which my sincerity and good faith will be manifest; and they are to be collected from the salt commissioners' and provincial treasuries of the three provinces of Chekeang, Keangsoo, and Ganhwuy, the richest supplying the deficiencies of the poorest. As to correspondence being con- ducted on terms of perfect equality between the two governments, and the barbarians who have been made captives, and the Chinese who have been reduced (into the employ of the English). I grant all these supplicated favors: let the captives be released: and I order that all the matters (the three just mentioned) be allowed which have been requested.

Further, with reference to what is contained in the report about sealing: the said barbarians do not require your seal as proof, but the imperial seal of the empire to be fixed as a guarantee (of the treaty); so I shall not fall in dignity—and the feelings of my imperial station will not be lost.

Before, I have disseminated my imperial rescripts to each of the dependencies of China, all sealed with imperial seal of the empire ; and I order that my rescripts be sent under a flying† seal with dispatches from the board of the civil office, and they are to be forwarded in this ceremonious manner, that all the clauses which have been clearly reported may be properly managed.

From the time of this settlement, the said great minister must especially report to the Emperor, behaving with perfect sincerity, of the things supplicated, there are none which have not been granted.

From this epoch of a thorough (free) trade, there should be everlasting peace and harmony; your nation should also treat us with mutual perfect sincerity; and certainly not again commence military operations, in direct opposition to heavenly principles; for not only have you al- ready caused troubles and confusion in many provinces ; but you must not again come, seeking causes of quarrel and war; and just so, the coast and territories of the provinces of Canton, Fuhkeen, Teawang (Formosa), Chekeang, Keangnan, Shan- tung, Chihle, and Shuntien (Peking), the barbarian vessels of war are not allowed to enter and frequent.

Since at this time we are at peace, of the officers and troops in each province, there are some that should be sent away and others detained. We have already consulted, as to the ancient cities of China, her signal pyramids and batteries; and it is proper that they should all be rebuilt successively, according to former custom; these have not been of modern erection, but they were built for the purpose of guarding against and seizing the pirates, and were not established to guard against the said barbarians ; and we certainly must not incoherently and disorderly produce suspicion and apprehension. Those distant provinces which have not yet heard of or possess a full knowledge of the peace—if any of your (barbarian) ships abruptly enter, and are suddenly attacked, you must not make this a cause of screening yourselves, borrowing pretenses, and mouthing.

The whole of the above matters rest wholly in the deep consideration and extreme care of the said minister and his colleagues; let them be wholly true and sincere in deliberating and deciding, and so for ever put an end to the risings of war; there must not be the least misconception or misunderstanding. This is not an affair or time to be idle, or to dismiss the matter in a hurried, remiss, and irregular manner, but regard it with severe and serious attention ! with sincere and serious attention regard it!

Hurry on this edict at more than at the rate of 600 le a day, and order him (Keying) to inform himself of its contents.—Respect this.

[English translation by unknown translator. The edict was originally reported by the Canton Register on October 24, 1842]

Source: 清實錄道光朝實錄 (Qing Shilu, Daoguangchao Shilu) [The Truthful Record of Qing Dynasty: The Truthful Record of the Reign of Daoguang]. South Australia Register (Adelaide) January 21, 1843, p.4., Imperial Edict, Founded Upon the Above Report.
[1] Subject was not written in any Imperial Rescript. What appears here has been written for the easy reference of the readership.